What is an Endoscope?
The endoscope (or gastroscope) is a medical device that allows doctors to view parts of your body that are normally hidden from sight. An external light source illuminates the area being viewed while an instrument called a camera is used to capture its image. A miniature video camera mounted inside the tube can transmit images back to the doctor’s monitor.
Flexible endoscopy refers to the use of a video camera attached to a long tube that is inserted into the body through small incisions or other openings. To prevent damage to internal organs, this device can only be used with x-ray guidance. Flexible endoscopes are usually equipped with lights and cameras and can be used to view the digestive tract, lungs, urinary tract, sinuses, and even the brain. In addition, they may be used to remove foreign objects from the body. Endoscopes are commonly used in hospitals for surgery. They may also be used to diagnose diseases, determine the cause of symptoms, check for cancer, and examine the interior of the abdomen.
Flexible Endoscopes are used for many different medical procedures. They have been around since the 1920s but they haven’t changed much since then. They still use light and a camera to view internal organs. There are two types of flexible endoscopes; fiberoptic and video. Fiber optic endoscopy uses bundles of glass fibers that conduct light through a series of lenses. Video endoscopy uses a lens and CCD (Charge Coupled Device) chips that convert images into electrical signals.
This typical surgical instrument would consist of a handle, shaft, distal tip, and a working channel. These elements can vary greatly from manufacturer to manufacturer. Most instruments have a hollow tube that contains a cutting blade or forceps at the end. Some instruments contain cameras or lights to help guide the procedure.
There are three basic types of endoscopic devices: rigid, semi-rigid, and flexible. Rigid endoscopes are used to perform surgery that requires a large incision. Semi-rigid endoscopes allow surgeons to make smaller incisions. Flexible endoscopes are lightweight, small, and maneuverable. There are many different materials and designs used to create them. Different materials include stainless steel, polyethylene, Teflon, nitinol, titanium, plastic, and carbon fiber.
Flexible Endoscopes – Parts List
The parts of a flexible endoscope are commonly used in medical procedures. Endoscopes are usually used in surgeries and examinations. They can have different types of lenses that allow them to see inside the body. They may also be equipped with tiny cameras (endocan) to take pictures from inside the body without having to open it.
- Tip: This device has 2 parts that slide together like a telescope. One part is the light guide, the other holds the camera, lenses, and mirrors.
- Main body: This contains the batteries, motor, circuit board, and lens. A flexible tip is placed at the end of the main body and connects to the light guide.
- Light Guide: This is the part that directs the light into your eyes. Inside the light, the guide is fiber optics that can bend and turn around corners.
- Camera: This is where the picture is taken from.
- Lenses: These magnify the image before it hits the retina. If the image wasn’t magnified enough, you would need glasses to view it clearly.
- Circuit Board: The electrical system is what makes this thing work. It’s similar to how your television works.
There are three basic components of a flexible endoscope:
- a) A channel that allows for the insertion of tools like forceps or snares into the patient’s body.
- b) Light delivery system
- c) Camera system.
The first type of flexible endoscopes is bronchoscopes and gastroscopes. These types of flexible endoscopes were originally designed for use in respiratory systems and the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), respectively. Bronchoscopes and gastroscopes have rigid channels, but they can bend at 90-degree angles.
Another kind of flexible endoscope is the colonoscope, which was developed for examining the large intestine and rectum. Colonoscopes have a special tool called a polypectomy snare that enables a doctor to remove a polyp from the colon.
Flexible endoscopes are not only used in medicine but also help in other fields…
A flexible endoscope is used to examine internal organs inside the body. This device has several components that make it unique but some are common to other medical equipment. These include; a camera lens (lens), light source (light bulb), fiber optic cable, transmitter and receiver coil, batteries, and controls.
Advantages of Flexible endoscope:-
Flexible endoscopy has several advantages over traditional open surgery. It provides better visualization of the area being examined and allows the surgeon to work without having to open the patient’s body cavity. Also, it reduces scarring and infection risk since the wound is usually small and closed.
- Flexible endoscopy (FE) is a medical procedure that uses a thin tube called an endoscope to inspect certain areas of your body. FE’s are used to help diagnose diseases like colon cancer, stomach ulcers, esophageal bleeding, polyps, liver tumors, gallbladder disease, urinary tract infections, etc.
- It can help detect things that may not be detectable using a traditional method. Using an endoscope, a doctor could identify potential problems like blood clots, kidney stones, inflammation of your gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic ducts, etc.
- It allows doctors to visualize internal organs from inside your digestive system without having to open up your abdominal cavity. This makes the procedure safer than invasive surgeries, especially if the patient has any type of infection or severe health issues.
- There are no incisions, stitches, scars, or pain involved, which means that patients recover much faster.
- There’s no need for anesthesia since there’s no cutting of tissue.
- It helps save time and money because it lets the doctors conduct their procedures at the earliest stages possible.
Flexible endoscopes are used in medical practices, including the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This device is designed to get inside a human body through small incisions and passageways. They can be used in different ways; some help us look at soft organs like the stomach or intestines or assist us in removing unwanted objects from our bodies, such as stones. There are various types of flexible endoscopes that vary in their features but they are basically classified into two categories – rigid and flexible. A rigid endoscope has a tube-like structure whereas a flexible endoscope has a bendable tip. Both these devices have advantages and disadvantages.
It also includes:
- Rigid endoscopes provide clear images and allow doctors to take biopsies without damaging the tissue.
- These instruments provide access to areas deep inside patients’ bodies and provide surgeons with better visibility.
- Rigid endoscopes are usually smaller in size and can easily fit through small incisions.
- They are less likely to get lost in larger cavities like the abdomen.
Flexible endoscope repair kit :
The flexible endoscope repair parts list includes all the necessary items to fix your broken endoscope. It contains all the supplies needed to perform the proper procedure on your endoscope. If your endoscope is damaged due to misuse or an accident, this repair kit can help to prevent further damage. It consists of :
- Bacterial Culture Solution
Bacterial culture solution is used as a disinfection agent. It should be cleaned after use.
- Anti-adhesion Coating
The anti-adhesive coating can prevent the adhesion of bacteria to medical devices. It can be easily washed off with water when needed.
- Antibiotic Additive
Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents that kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. They can be added before sterilization if necessary.
How to use a Flexible Endoscope?
The first thing that you need to do is prepare your equipment. You’ll need some sterile saline solution (saline), gloves, and a good light source. You can either have a surgical lamp or a handheld LED flashlight. I prefer using a surgical lamp since I find them to be much brighter than handheld lights. When you are ready to perform the procedure, sterilize the tip of the camera that has been inserted into the patient’s body. You will want to make sure that the entire area around the tip has been cleaned. This includes any crevices where bacteria could hide. Once the tip has been sterilized, you should then insert the tip into the patient’s body and aim for the affected area. If you are unsure of the exact location, gently press around the area until you feel something hard. A small amount of the saline liquid will eventually leak out from the tip. You will know if the tip has entered the correct area because this liquid will drip down and coat the inside of the instrument. Continue to move the tip through the body until it reaches the targeted organ. When you reach the desired point, take a picture of the inside of the organ. Repeat this process
Why Endoscope leak testing is needed?
The main reason for the need for this test is to protect patients from infection or other complications that can result from leaking endoscopes. But beyond patient safety, fluid entering the endoscope can damage the fiber optics and imaging assemblies, making them brittle and potentially brittle. Liquid can also damage video chips and cause stiffness or even loss of angular ability. These are expensive and time-consuming repairs.
Five steps to test an oscilloscope for leaks
Because liquid ingress is so devastating to your equipment, it is important to properly leak-test your endoscopes after each procedure. The scope leak testing process can be broken down into five steps:
Step #1: The water stopper
It may seem like a small thing, but the first and most important step in properly testing an endoscope for leaks is installing the waterproof cap. Place the cap on the electrical contacts immediately after a procedure to prevent liquid from entering the endoscope during leak testing and disinfection.
The cap also has an ETO valve which can be used not only for ETO gas sterilization but also for endoscope pressure testing (i.e. checking for leaks). In general, eyewear manufacturers recommend replacing the waterproof cap every 12-18 months (many people ignore this advice and could end up using a waterproof cap beyond its useful life). Over time, the cap can wear out and leaks can occur, leading to liquid invasion. Don’t take your waterproof cap for granted. It is an essential part of the leak prevention process. Make sure it is kept in good working order.
Step #2: Pressurize the scope
During the leak test, the channels inside the endoscope are opened to allow air to flow freely through the endoscope. There are 2 ways to do this.
The first is to use a manufacturer-supplied automatic pressurizer. Properly connect the automatic pressure limiter to the oscilloscope via the ETO valve, then turn on the automatic pressure tester to allow air to flow through the oscilloscope. Unfortunately, once the visor is pressurized using this method, there is no way to measure if the visor is leaking until it is submerged; only then can a pressure loss be observed.
Reach the second and the other before submerging them in water. The user pumps air through the visor, through the ETO valve, to maintain a specific pressure.
Once the set pressure is reached, you can see on the pressure tester dial whether the oscilloscope is holding or losing the pressure. If your visor loses pressure quickly, this could be a good indicator that your visor has a hole in it. In this case, you should interrupt the leak test to avoid liquid ingress. If the endoscope is slowly depressurizing, continue the process to identify the leak. Please note that as with all devices, the pressure is measured with a hand pressure gauge.
Step 3: Test the flex area first
Since the flexible section is the part of the oscilloscope most susceptible to liquid ingress, it is recommended that you submerge it first as a separate event. The flexible section consists of the flexible rubber, the epoxy strips that hold the flexible rubber in place, and the distal cap that covers the objective and light lenses and biopsy channels.
The flexible section is susceptible to damage for a number of reasons. The pliable rubber is by design the thinnest part of the visor, making it more prone to tears and punctures. It is also tipped and manipulated during a procedure, so it is subject to considerable “normal” wear and tears over the life of the endoscope.
Step #4 – Saturate the entire area
After checking the flexible section for leaks, the entire scope can be submerged. It is very important to fully submerge the visor in order for a proper waterproof test to be carried out; Make sure all areas of the visor are completely covered with water.
When immersed, bubbles form on the surface of the viewer. These bubbles form naturally due to the change in pressure when the endoscope is first inserted. Remove surface bubbles and perform a thorough visual inspection of the surface.
Step #5: Wash the aligners
Finally, while the entire endoscope is still fully submerged, the internal channels can be checked for leaks. This is a very important step in leak testing, especially for endoscopes with suction and biopsy channels. Internal channels can develop holes due to normal wear and tear or physical trauma. In this case, the damaged channels can allow fluid to enter the endoscope. Internal channels are the most difficult area to find a leak as they are not always easy to see. Proper flushing of these channels can reduce the incidence of fluid invasion.
The best way to ensure an endoscope’s channels aren’t leaking is to use a syringe filled with water. Each endoscope channel should be flushed through the ports (aspiration, biopsy) with the syringe at least three to four times, keeping the endoscope fully submerged during flushing. If the orifice used to flush the canal is removed from the water, air can flow back into the canal, giving the user the impression that there may be a leak.